伊東豊雄 Toyo Ito 設計的多摩美術大學副屬圖書館 Tama Art University Library

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伊東豊雄 Toyo Ito 設計的多摩美術大學副屬圖書館 Tama Art University Library

文章準建轉貼專家 發表於 2007-04-28, 00:24

新建成的多摩美術大學副屬圖書館(Tama Art University Library),是由日本建築大師伊東豊雄 Toyo Ito 所設計。

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多摩美術大學有兩個校區,一個在東京上野毛,一個在東京八王子。自1935年在上野毛創校至今,還歷經戰爭校區毀壞重建,在1960年上野毛校區建設完成之後開始購入八王子這塊校區。

此圖書館在多摩美術大學的東京八王子校區裡,位於一個公園後面,略微傾斜的斜坡上。由於目前多摩美術大學的自助餐廳是唯一一個學生和學校職員共用的場所,伊東豐雄的設計首要訴求就是考慮如何讓圖書館為所有人提供一個開放的公共空間。

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第一個概念就是底層開闊的長廊式空間,為人們穿越校園提供一條活動道路,即使他們目的不是為了走進圖書館的。為了讓人們的流動和視覺自由地貫穿建築,他們開始考慮使用隨機排布的拱形結構來營造一種感覺,讓傾斜的地面和外面的公園風景和建築保持連續。

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拱形用鋼結構和混凝土做成,這些拱形結構相互交匯,這樣可以讓拱形的底部非常苗條,而頂部可以承住二層的重量,這些拱形的跨度從1.8米到16米不等,但厚度是統一的200毫米。

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由於形狀和地平面都是不規則的,所以每個拱門都是量身訂做,安裝妥後再直接灌入混凝土,僅200毫米的厚度卻能撐起大垮度。

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這些交匯的拱形把空間柔和地劃分成不同的區域,加上書架,不同形狀的學習桌以及可用作公告牌的玻璃隔斷等等,給劃分而成的區域帶來即有個體性又和整體空間保持連續的感覺。

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在傾斜的底層,有酒吧櫃檯模樣的影片流覽區,放有最新期雜誌的大玻璃桌子,讓在圖書館等待公車的學生可以打發時間。

從樓梯走向第二層,裝有大本藝術書籍的矮書櫃穿插在拱形之間,在書櫃之間是不同大小的學習桌和擺有影印機的大桌子。人們穿梭在這些拱形之間會體驗到不用的空間感受間的變化,從充滿自然光線的修道院到視覺上不可洞穿的地下隧道。

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家具設計相當精緻,窗簾都是魚鱗般的圖騰,和拱門的形狀呼應,窗簾是由織品設計師安東陽子(Yoko Ando)設計,而家具設計師則是由和伊東搭配多次的東京大學和多摩美術大學兼任女教授藤江和子

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多摩美術大學圖書館讓每個人在他與書和影視媒體打交道過程中發現自己的風格,如同走進一座樹林或一個山洞,在穿梭中柔和的相互關係在這個拱廊樣子的空間中形成,創造力從此散發到真個校園。

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美麗的窗簾是由 NUNO 的織品設計師安東陽子(Yoko Ando)所設計

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準建轉貼專家
 

文章準建轉貼專家 發表於 2007-04-28, 11:57

After his triumph in Sendai, Toyo Ito charted a new course, which is now becoming visible
By Dana Buntrock

When he was working on the Sendai Mediatheque, Toyo Ito volunteered to me that afterward he might retire. It was a shocking thought. Ito turned 60 in 2001, the year his acclaimed multimedia library in Sendai opened.

In his case, 60 was not just the “new 40,” it was closer to 30.

But after completing the Mediatheque, a spectacular structure that architects will dissect for decades, he kept going. Instead of retiring, he plotted a change in his architectural agenda. When I next spoke with him about the broad direction of his career, he was designing a building for Tod’s Shoes on Omotesando Avenue in Tokyo [record, June 2005, page 78] and asking what was left to learn. He argued that the boulevard offered some of the best recent buildings—but also demonstrated that architects, given generous budgets, already knew how to make exquisitely ingenious jewel boxes.

Ito wanted something more. He did not exactly know where he was headed, but he knew he was lighting out in a new direction. Although he had collaborated with the talented structural engineer Masato Araya on the Tod’s building, he wanted to test his new design territory by collaborating with the more complex and contumacious Mutsuro Sasaki.

The quest Ito set out on after Sendai is now beginning to take shape. It has one simple rule: Eschew all the easy stuff. With buildings by most architects, you can assess the design by examining three of its major aspects: the appeal of its elevations and form, the organization of its plans and circulation, and the aesthetic effect of its materials and detailing. In most cases, once you understand these elements, you can quickly identify the architect behind them. The Tama Art University library is an extraordinary antithesis to this. The oddly syncopated arches of its elevation, if judged graphically, can only be called awkward. Its form is a simple, slightly distorted box, rendered so flat it is aphasically mute. Its plan tells us little about the building’s use or the circulation through it and is assertively empty, never privileging or pumping up the space within. Without too much effort, everything inside could probably be removed over a long weekend, and the building could quickly be converted into an art museum, a painting studio, a warehouse, or a dance club. The details—well, the ones most architects often employ to make a point, such as balustrades, door pulls, and light fixtures—are not inelegant, but demonstrate no effort at achieving a strong aesthetic impact. Until you experience this building, it is easy to dismiss it as unlikely to appeal.

Ito is hanging his hat instead on two often undervalued areas of architecture: structure and section. In his pre-Sendai work, he explored two other important ideas: oscillating between spatial fluidity on the one hand, and transparency, thinness, and lightness on the other. At the Tama library, neither of those earlier goals is lost, but they are no longer the decisive ones.

In the year after the Mediatheque, Ito produced two temporary projects that employed structural skins: the Serpentine Gallery in London (designed with Cecil Balmond of Arup) and a pavilion in Bruges, Belgium, both of which were elegant and immediately acclaimed. Although these short-lived structures were built in Europe, Ito lives in earthquake-prone Tokyo, where the importance of structure is extreme. Rather than fighting this beast, he faced it directly, making the pavilions’ skin also serve as their structure. His 2005 Mikimoto Ginza 2 building in Tokyo shares the same approach to structure and skin as his Tod’s building done slightly earlier, though Mikimoto is painted pink! There is a Modernist logic to all these buildings, paring down the parts and exaggerating the engineering. The two permanent structures, Tod’s and Mikimoto, required sealed envelopes, while the two pavilions needed only to be enclosed on some, but not all sides. On all four projects, Ito designed exteriors where figure and ground are at odds, a strategy that unintentionally drew most attention to the graphic success of their facades. On the Tama library, however, Ito asserts this is not the point, employing the lessons learned in these earlier structures to create both internal and external shear walls that are airy and open, but unbeautiful.

Other recent works, including Grin Grin Park in Fukuoka and the Kakamigahara Crematorium [record, March 2007, page 166] in Gifu address how section structures space. These projects follow a direction Ito first explored in the undulating slab of his 1998 Nagaoka Lyric Hall. Recent designs for exhibitions in Berlin and Tokyo offer a stripped-down exploration of section that concentrates only on altering one surface, the floor. For the Berlin exhibition, he transformed the floor of Mies’s New National Gallery into a rolling and slanting indoor landscape. At Tama, Ito investigates how this change plays out in a programmed space, introducing a pitch to the ground floor that is more subtle than the one he used in Berlin but underscored by the odd inclination of movable cases with deployable legs.

If earlier works are any indication, the Tama library is just one exploration of ideas that now engage Ito; chances are it won’t be the last. It presents an insightful opportunity to observe an unusually innovative and experienced architect exploring the implications of his abilities. Fittingly for a university, Ito engages the intellect. Experienced architects and engineers are most likely to fully appreciate this building. But the Tama library offers a luminous, unadorned aesthetic that should also appeal to and inspire the school’s students.


New Library, Tama Art University
Hachioji City, Japan
Toyo Ito & Associates

Toyo Ito combines a new kind of grid with an innovative system of arches at the Tama Art University Library outside of Tokyo

By Naomi R. Pollock, AIA - This is an excerpt of an article from the January 2008 edition of Architectural Record.

With its iconic arches, Toyo Ito’s new library at Tama Art University has the aura of a Romanesque building. But caves, not compression structures, were the architect’s inspiration, so any similarities to European antecedents are merely superficial. And unlike the straightforward, repetitive systems used historically, Ito’s high-tech concrete curves—each one different—tiptoe gracefully in multiple directions throughout the building.

The building marks the final stage in the development of the 45-year-old campus, one of two belonging to the multimedia art school where Ito serves as a guest professor. Located 16 miles west of central Tokyo, the hilly, 39-acre property abuts open land once earmarked for residential development but still fallow in 2007. Housed in a collection of concrete-and-glass buildings bound by tree-lined streets, the school enrolls 3,600 students who commute daily to its studio and performing arts facilities. Ito’s library commands a choice site overlooking the university’s main gate and the public bus stop beyond it. Defined on two sides by bowed walls, it makes a strong first impression: monumental without being a monument, and contextual in scale and material without getting lost in the shuffle.

To capitalize on the building’s strategic location, Ito first wanted to submerge the library and top it off with a single-story gathering place where students and professors could cross paths and exhibit their work. But this idea did not go over well with the university administration, which envisioned a conventional 3- or 4-story building with a gallery below. Also, buried infrastructure prevented a full-scale site excavation. Despite these roadblocks, Ito was unwilling to abandon his original concept altogether. So he inverted his underground grotto and turned it into a 60,700-square-foot building with a single, large space on each of its two stories, each one loosely divided into functional zones by arcades.

A continuous sheet of concrete, the building’s cavernous ground floor flows down to the north, following the land’s natural slope. It reads as a unified, slanting space accessed through an arcaded gallery. A circulation conduit and multipurpose exhibition hall all in one, this informal gallery has plenty of room for students to congregate around one of its built-in tables or display their work, be it a painting or a performance piece. It also acts as the entry foyer leading into the library, whose ground level contains the circulation desk, an administrative area, a media bar, and magazine display tables topped with glass that parallel the angled floor. A set of stairs shaped like a floating curlicue of concrete ascends to the second floor, where the main reading area flows into open stacks on one side and a two-story block of closed stacks on the other. Unlike downstairs, the floor plane here had to be level for the book trolleys that transport the library’s 10,000 volumes. But overhead, the ceiling tilts up gently, filling the entire second floor with soft, north light.
準建轉貼專家
 

文章eaGer 發表於 2008-10-05, 21:41

伊東豊雄 Toyo Ito
多摩美術大學副屬圖書館平面圖 & 剖面圖 | Tama Art University Library Plans & Section


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註冊時間: 2008-05-04, 11:28


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